By Patrik Nosil
The foundation of organic variety, through the formation of recent species, might be inextricably associated with model to the ecological surroundings. in particular, ecological tactics are crucial to the formation of latest species whilst obstacles to gene move (reproductive isolation) evolve among populations because of ecologically-based divergent typical choice. This technique of 'ecological speciation' has noticeable a wide physique of quite targeted learn within the final 10-15 years, and a evaluation and synthesis of the theoretical and empirical literature is now timely.
The booklet starts off by way of clarifying what ecological speciation is, its possible choices, and the predictions that may be used to check for it. It then reports the 3 elements of ecological speciation and discusses the geography and genomic foundation of the method. a last bankruptcy highlights destiny examine instructions, describing the ways and experiments that may be used to behavior that destiny paintings. The ecological and genetic literature is built-in in the course of the textual content with the aim of laying off new perception into the speciation approach, quite while the empirical facts is then additional built-in with concept.
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Extra info for Ecological Speciation
Gene ﬂow/lineage sorting: provides information on the degree to which gene ﬂow and incomplete lineage sorting (inferred indirectly as being more likely when origins of taxa are recent) may contribute to nonmonophyly of ecologically similar forms. Criterion 3. SI: Y’ denotes cases where SI was shown to be greater between ecologically divergent forms than between ecologically similar forms, independent from phylogenetic relatedness. ) was reported, but SI itself was not measured. Criterion 4. , study organisms were reared under common-garden conditions).
3) Does ecologically based selection reduce the ﬁtness of immigrants and hybrids? (4) Is ecological divergence correlated with reduced levels of gene ﬂow in nature? (5) Do speciation events coincide with ecological shifts? I turn to reviewing each approach in detail. I conclude by discussing causality, ascertainment bias, and publication bias. The most critical ﬁnding that emerges is that although evidence for ecological speciation is abundant, almost all of it is correlative and indirect, or from lab studies.
Predictions and tests of ecological speciation 27 evidence for natural selection in the process of speciation, and a number of putative examples now exist. 2. Parallel speciation via experimental evolution in the lab proportion between-population mating Laboratory selection experiments provide ideal opportunities for testing ecological speciation. Replicate lines can be selected divergently and at the end of the experiment one can test whether lines adapted to different environments exhibit greater reproductive isolation than different lines adapted to the same environment.