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By Anthony S. Travis (auth.), Anthony S. Travis, Harm G. Schröter, Ernst Homburg, Peter J. T. Morris (eds.)

The editors desire to thank the eu technological know-how starting place for its help of the programme at the Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, in addition to for sponsoring the e-book of this quantity. in the course of the subdivision of this initiative that bargains particularly with chemical it's been attainable for historians of technological know-how, know-how, company and economics to percentage frequently broadly differing viewpoints and enhance consensus throughout disciplinary and cultural limitations. The contents of this quantity are in accordance with the 3rd of 3 workshops that experience thought of the emergence of the trendy ecu chemical sooner than 1939, the 1st held in Liege (1994), the second one in Maastricht (1995), and the 3rd in Strasbourg (1996). All individuals and individuals are thanked for his or her participation in frequently vigorous and informative debates. The beneficiant hospitality of the eu technology beginning and its employees in Strasbourg is gratefully stated. advent rising chemical wisdom and the advance of chemical undefined, and especially the interplay among them, supply wealthy fields of research for the historian. this is often mirrored within the contents of the 3 workshops facing the emergence of chemical held less than the aegis of the ecu technology Foundation's Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, programme. the 1st workshop centred normally on technological know-how for undefined, 1789- 1850, and the second one at the two-way site visitors among technology and undefined, 1850-1914. The 3rd workshop, facing the interval 1900-1939, covers related matters, yet inside of assorted, and wider, contexts.

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Extra info for Determinants in the Evolution of the European Chemical Industry, 1900–1939: New Technologies, Political Frameworks, Markets and Companies

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47 This gas the Germans could make easily in the form of diphosgene, and it was produced at Bayer's Leverkusen works from April 1916, and later in Frankfurt by Hoechst. But it was a gas the British made with great difficulty. Efficient production depended upon the choice of process, and at least two routes were possible - either reacting sulphuric acid with carbon tetrachloride (as at the United Alkali Company), or passing equal volumes of chlorine and carbon monoxide over a charcoal catalyst (as used by Hoechst).

225; Lothar Burchardt, "Professionalisierung oder Berufskonstruktion? Das Beispiel aes Chemikers im Wilhelminischen Deutschland," Geschichte und Gesellscha/t, 6, (1988), 326-348. Donald Cardwell suggests there were 4,000 chemists in Germany's 40 R. M. MacLEOD We know very little about most of these men, and a good deal about a few, notably the academics - in Germany including Haber, Fischer, Nernst and WilisUitter, in the USA, Lewis and Conant, and in England, Hartley and his senior officers. Apart from these 'officers,' we have yet to learn about the "other ranks" in the chern ical factories and laboratories.

This introduction, intended for secondary school teachers and students, should be required reading for undergraduates. 22 2J Johnson, op. cit. (19), pp. 36, 39. 24 Michael Sanderson, The Universities and British Industry, 1850-1970 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul , 1972), chapter 8. 25 Haber, Chemical Industry, op. cit. (7), pp. 84-90. 32 R. M. MacLEOD combination of engineering and chemical skills, as well as metallurgical and process technologies that only the most advanced industrial societies could afford.

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