By Patrick O'Neil
This moment version depends on an identical winning procedure that distinct the 1st: it covers the rules of database conception with unequalled thoroughness, and it conscientiously hyperlinks concept to the genuine international of database programming and management. A cautious dialogue of SQL criteria and a mess of examples drawn from real databases-Oracle, DB2, and Informix-complements the authors' concept-oriented guideline, permitting you to strengthen product-specific knowing and to profit the real adjustments among the SQL dialects that might help you write moveable applications.
* Focuses largely at the object-relational version that's quickly gaining popularity and revolutionizing the database undefined. assortment varieties and UDF's are completely covered.
* Introduces new relational beneficial properties of SQL taken from the newest models of latest preferred database items, Oracle, DB2, and Informix.
* deals thorough assurance of the SQL-99 common, together with additions designed that will help you take complete good thing about the object-relational model.
* presents multiplied programming examples meant to enhance your figuring out of transaction processing and mistake handling.
* Explains basically the rules of logical database layout, together with these in terms of the E-R version and normalization, with a few new illustrations and examples.
* provides the most recent indexing and question processing ideas, resembling bitmap indexing, and indicates tips to use them to accomplish major functionality improvements.
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Extra info for Database. Principles Programming Performance
RPI Relational RULES A few well-known defining characteristics, or rules, of the relational model tell us what variations in table structure are permitted and limit possible retrieval operations. These relational rules serve the important purpose of pointing out areas to standardize in the various commercial product offerings, so that issues of database design are the same for all products. Unfortunately, there is a great deal of current disagreement between the school of thought that says that these rules are crucial and the school of thought that says that it is sometimes convenient to break them, or even that different rules should be the standard.
3. 6, the two intermediate tables T l and T2 are not mandatory, because expressions in relational algebra allow arbitrary nesting. If we are given an expression exprl involving T l , and T l is repre- 49 Chapter 2 50 THE RELATIONAL MODEL sented through an assignment as an expression expr2 involving other tables, then we can substitute expr2 for every occurrence of T l in exprl to achieve the same result. The major motivation for the assignment operation in the following sections will be to display intermediate results of a complex expression to improve human understanding.
In what follows, we will generally assume that R and S are two tables with Head(R) = Ai. . A n and Head(S) = Bi. . B m . Taking the product of R and S allows us to create a new table with rows containing all possible associations between the rows of the two tables. If r is a row in R consisting of the tuple of values (r(Ai), . , r(A n )), and s is a row in S with the tuple of values (s(Bi), . , s(B m )), then the usual definition of Cartesian product would imply that the product of R and S contains all pairs of tuples from R and S, with the form ((r(Ai), .