Download Data and Databases. Concepts in Practice by Zerubavel PDF

By Zerubavel

"Days, months, and years got to us via nature, yet we invented the week for ourselves. there's not anything inevitable a few seven-day cycle, or approximately the other form of week; it represents an arbitrary rhythm imposed on our actions, unrelated to something within the ordinary order. yet the place the week exists—and there were many cultures the place it doesn't—it is so deeply embedded in our adventure that we hardly query its rightness, or contemplate it as a man-made conference; for many people it's a subject of 'second nature.'

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The only thing SQL-92 says about an inherent sorting order is that all NULLs must sort together either before or after all values. Just as we viewed the simple index as putting a linear search into a persistent data structure, we can think of a tree-structured index as putting a binary (or n-ary) search into a persistent data structure. There are many different types of tree-structured indexes, but they all have the same motivation. As a simple index gets bigger and bigger, it starts to require longer and longer search times.

46 - VIEWs serve several purposes: 1. Security: Users can be given access to only those rows and columns for which they have authorization. 2. Hiding complexity: Rather than have programmers write the same complex query over and over, they can be given a VIEW that has the query in it. This has the added advantage that everyone will do it the same way—something that was impossible to guarantee if all programmers began their work from scratch each time. 3. Optimization: This is possible in certain SQL products where the optimizer looks for common subexpressions across multiple queries and statements.

He says errors in the implementation of DBMS engines and the dominant data sublanguage, SQL, jeopardize data integrity and make it too hard to frame a very complex query and get back a usable answer. Codd’s new book, The Relational Model for Database Management: Version 2, defines just how far he thinks we still have to go. It is highly recommended reading. Whereas Code loves to elucidate the practical benefits of relational theory, things get dicey when talk ventures onto nonrelational grounds.

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