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By Heidi Keller, Klaus Schneider, Bruce Henderson

Exploration and play behaviour shape the topic of this publication, during which quite a lot of examine actions, either theoretical and sensible, are offered from numerous fields. particularly, the emphasis on purposes (for instance, within the improvement of software program) demonstrates the built-in method of uncomplicated and utilized examine. The authors come from many various international locations and characterize quite a few theoretical techniques, permitting the reader to obtain an updated evaluation of the sphere and therefore shape an opinion of his/her personal concerning this box of research.

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But even then, the main figure shows a certain development. So the punishment described may therefore more indicate the difficulties and dangers of exploration than the general disapproval of the behavior itself. 2. We mainly find affirmation of exploratory activities as a way of change to the better in thumb ling tales and in the stories of the stupid third son, wherein the situation of an outcast can only be overcome by courageous involvement in the challenging tasks. 3. Curiosity is generally positively evaluated, if it is a characteristic of the young and inexperienced.

Wilson Bulletin, 60, 6-52. Tinbergen, N. (1951). The study of instinct. Oxford: University Press. Tinbergen, N. (1966). Tiere und ihr Verhalten. Life, Wunder der Natur. Nederland: Time-Life International. Weiss-BUrger, M. (1981). Untersuchungen zum EinfluB des Erkundungs- und Spielverhaltens auf das Lemen bei Iltisfrettchen. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 55, 33-62. I. (1956). Some determinants of play and exploration in chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 49,84-89.

Another form of demand consists of restrictions that constitute the conditions under which the situation can be changed. In The Twelve Brothers the girl whose brothers had been turned into ravens went out to rescue them and met an old woman who demanded from her: "( ... ) if you would release them you must keep dumb for seven years. You must neither speak nor laugh, and one hour in which the rule is broken will make all the rest in vain. " (51) The spell was so binding that the sister even resisted the threat of death and did not speak before the seven years were up.

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