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Extra info for Critical Realism in Economics: Development and Debate (Economics As Social Theory)
Commons’, Review of Political Economy 6(2):445–464. , Peacock, M. and Pratten, S. (1996) ‘Realism, Underlabouring and Institutions’, Cambridge Journal of Economics 20(1):137–151. Lawson, T. (1994) ‘The Nature of Post Keynesianism and its Links to other Traditions’ , Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 16:503–538. ) (1998) Why Economists Disagree: An Introduction to the Contemporary Schools of Thought, New York: State University of New York Press. ——(1997) Economics and Reality, London: Routledge.
Second, experimental results are frequently applied outside the experimental situation where event regularities are no longer found. In order to render intelligible these observations critical realists argue that it is necessary to interpret the world as structured and open thereby breaking away from the essentially flat ontology, exhausted by events and experiences, associated with the positivist position. That is, the confinement of most event regularities, but not of the application of scientific knowledge to situations of experimental control, can be explained if it is acknowledged that the world is structured in that actual events and 23 STEPHEN PRATTEN states of affairs are produced by equally real underlying structures, mechanisms, powers and open in that actual phenomena are typically conjointly determined by numerous often countervailing mechanisms.
1979) ‘Theories of Value, Output and Employment,’ as reprinted in J. Milgate (eds) (1983) Keynes’s Economics and the Theory of Value and Distribution, London: Duckworth. Howard (eds) Classical and Marxian Political Economy, London: Macmillan. Milgate (1982) Capital and Employment, London: Academic Press. Newman (eds) The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, London: Macmillan. ——(1994) ‘Institutions, Efficiency, and the Theory of Economic Policy’, Social Research 61(1):35–53. Eatwell, J. and Green, R.