Download Conserving and valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity: by K N Ninan, Achim Steiner PDF

By K N Ninan, Achim Steiner

This is often the main accomplished ebook to deal with the commercial, social and institutional problems in keeping biodiversity. It covers quite a lot of matters corresponding to biodiversity, atmosphere providers and valuation within the context of numerous ecosystems akin to tropical forests, marine components, wetlands and agricultural landscapes, non-timber woodland items, incentives and associations, funds for environment companies, governance, highbrow estate rights and the security of conventional wisdom, administration of secure parts, and weather switch and biodiversity.It additionally covers the applying of environmental economics and institutional economics to varied instances and using thoughts akin to contingent valuation process and video game idea. The booklet spans the globe with case stories drawn from a move component to areas and continents together with the united kingdom, US, Europe, Australia, India, Africa and South America.Contributors contain Jeffrey McNeely, Charles Perrings, Clem Tisdell, Timothy Swanson, Lucy Emerton, R Kerry Turner, Ian Batemen, John Loomis, Leslie Richardson, Unai Pascual, Timothy Hass, Krystyna Swiderska, Regina Birner, Randall Kramer, Jane Kabubo-Mariara, Ernest L Molua, and others.

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Since biodiversity and ecosystem services are public goods, the private incentive to exploit them beyond socially optimum levels is tremendous. Although the CBD, to which 188 countries are signatories, has set a target of achieving a significant reduction in the current rate of biodiversity loss by the year 2010, the MEA report paints a grim picture. Far from reducing, the MEA review shows that the rates of biodiversity loss have remained steady, if not accelerated. qxd 11/27/2008 1:47 PM Page 5 Introduction 5 50 per cent of wetlands, 40 per cent of global forest cover (in the last 300 years) have either disappeared or degraded (MEA, 2005, vide EC, 2008).

1 Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services and drivers of change Source: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Global Biodiversity Outlook 2, Montreal, 2006. 2015 (Baillie et al, 2004). Although there could be trade-offs between achieving the 2015 target of the MDG, and the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss resolved by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2002, there are also potential synergies between achieving the internationally agreed goals of reducing biodiversity loss, and promoting environmental sustainability and development.

The Living Planet Index – a measure of the state of the world’s biodiversity based on trends from 1970 to 2003 and covering 695 terrestrial species, 274 marine species and 344 freshwater species in the world – compiled by WWF (2006) notes an overall decline of 30 per cent in the index over the 33-year period under review, and similarly for terrestrial, marine and freshwater indices. The Ecological Footprint – a measure of humanity’s demand on the Earth’s biocapacity for meeting consumption needs and absorbing wastes – has exceeded the earth’s biocapacity by 25 per cent as of 2003 (WWF, 2006).

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