By Carl Milofsky
Neighborhood nonprofit enterprises are usually small, loosely dependent, and democratically ruled, and as a result don't healthy comfortably into conventional theories of organizational habit which are rooted in administrative technology and bureaucratic constitution. Treating group enterprises as components of bigger systems--organizational fields or ecologies and communities--this number of papers provides quite a few views on neighborhood nonprofit organisations from the perspective of organizational idea. The essays draw on an array of tools and theoretical methods taken from inhabitants ecology theories of businesses, laying the root for the structural research of neighborhood enterprises.
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Extra info for Community Organizations: Studies in Resource Mobilization and Exchange (Yale Studies on Nonprofit Organizations)
This has long been recognized by observers of communities. William Lloyd Warner, J. O. Low, Paul S. Lunt, and Leo Srole in Yankee City (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963), p. 118, spoke of community organizations as secondary institutions, distinguished from primary ones, such as the school, the family, or the economy. Allen H. : Doubleday, 1969) operationalized a measure of this secondary status when he studied communities in disaster. In a disaster, individuals often are torn between obligations to families and work and commitments to voluntary associations.
This is less true in an urban, cosmopolitan society where networks are open ended. Lasker and Strodtbeck argue that this lack of feedback is essential if people are to develop universalitic attitudes about how to judge others. Shifting our focus from boundaries to organizational mechanisms as causes of community, the availability of resources and the way that they are allocated are critical causal factors. Resources are referred to here in a noneconomic sense and include more than commodities. As the Lasker and Strodtbeck study shows, social goods such as friendship, respect, and neighborliness are valued qualities which may be lost and which people take great care to protect.
27. Pluralist political theory tracing its roots to Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America, trans. Philips Bradley (New York: Knopf, 1945), argued that democracy is rooted in the inclination of Americans to belong to many associations. When survey research tools became available, sociologists examined the empirical basis of this proposition and found that relatively few Americans belong to voluntary associations. See H. H. Hyman and C. R. Wright, "Trends in Voluntary Association Memberships of American Adults," American Sociological Review 36 (1971), 191-206, and Stephen L.