By Eric A. Posner
Weather swap and justice are so heavily linked that many folks take it with no consideration international weather treaty should--indeed, must--directly handle either matters jointly. yet, in reality, this is able to be a major mistake, one who, by way of dooming powerful foreign limits on greenhouse gases, would really make the world's negative and constructing international locations a ways worse off. this is often the provocative and unique argument of weather switch Justice. Eric Posner and David Weisbach strongly desire either a weather switch contract and efforts to enhance monetary justice. yet they make a strong case that the best--and most likely only--way to get a good weather treaty is to exclude measures designed to redistribute wealth or handle historic wrongs opposed to underdeveloped nations. In transparent language, weather switch Justice proposes 4 simple rules for designing the single type of weather treaty that would work--a forward-looking contract that calls for each nation to make greenhouse--gas rate reductions yet nonetheless makes each nation at an advantage in its personal view. this sort of treaty has the easiest probability of truly controlling weather swap and enhancing the welfare of individuals world wide.
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Extra resources for Climate Change Justice
There are, however, two ethical claims about instrument choice: that cap-andtrade systems are likely to have better distributive consequences and are also likely to have better environmental consequences. Distributional Differences Some claim that cap-and-trade systems are more flexible than taxes, allowing us to better tailor the distributive consequences. The reason is that governments can choose how to allocate the initial permits. Policy Instruments 49 If, for example, the government wants to help poor people, it can give them permits, which the poor people can then sell to polluters.
This is roughly consistent with experience with oil production and oil prices over the last several years—as prices have changed dramatically, production has not significantly increased. 38 In effect, costly efforts to reduce demand by the United States act simply as a transfer to other countries through a reduction in the price at which they must purchase energy. With certain assumptions about how oil exporting nations react to reduced demand, the effect might be more modest. But the point remains: the only way to reduce the use of fossil fuels is for all major users to agree to reductions.
If we push down a lot, however, the first ones to rise above the water if we let up a bit are the ones that reach it later. A little bit of help is not sufficient for the balls that are at or near the bottom. Similarly, if the effects of climate change are likely to be severe, remedial action will benefit the nations that are moderately hurt more than the nations that are severely hurt. This result does not hold if climate change results in less severe harm. We should also emphasize that poor nations that are likely to be hurt by climate change are not necessarily best helped by climate change abatement.