Download Cheating Monkeys and Citizen Bees: The Nature of Cooperation by Lee Dugatkin PDF

By Lee Dugatkin

Cooperation is the material that retains society jointly. Civilization couldn't were completed - and won't be sustained - with no it. yet what's it? How and why does it paintings? may perhaps the key of bettering human cooperation lie in an research of the animal nation? In dishonest Monkeys and Citizen Bees, evolution and animal habit professional Professor Lee Dugatkin, recognized during the educational neighborhood for his creative animal habit experiments, studies from the innovative of clinical examine at the startling evolutionary fact approximately cooperation and the way it really works. He explains the 4 paths to cooperation that we proportion with animals and offers the experimentally established definitions of a habit not anyone notion technological know-how might ever clarify. these readers with an curiosity in ecology, evolutionary biology, psychology, even anthropology will locate dishonest Monkeys and Citizen Bees a necessary guide of the dynamics of cooperation. and everybody will locate it to be a lucid advent to the fantastic evolutionary heritage of ways we got here to act within the ways in which we do, of the way nature got here to be much less brutal than we have a tendency to imagine.

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Extra resources for Cheating Monkeys and Citizen Bees: The Nature of Cooperation in Animals and Humans

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1978:254. Vorher hat das Kind übrigens keinen Begriff von Zufall und Wahrscheinlichkeit. 43 Das vom Sinnlichen befreite Mögliche erlaubt daher die Verneinung des Sinnlichen zugunsten der Etablierung des Möglichen. Piaget bezieht diese Verkehrung des Verhältnisses von Wirklichem und Möglichem bewußt auch auf das politische und ethische Denken des Adoleszenten. Dieser bildet nun Theorien über die Gesellschaft und über ihre Veränderbarkeit und mißt Zustände an Idealen. 102 Das Denken wird aber nicht nur hypothetisch-deduktiv, sondern auch experimentell-induktiv.

96 Laut Piaget erwirbt das Kind mit ca. 12 Jahren auf der sprachlichen und formalen Ebene die operativen Fähigkeiten, die es auf der Ebene konkreter Objekte schon mit sieben Jahren anwenden konnte. Das bedeutet aber, und Piaget und die Piagetianer bringen diese Konsequenz nie zum klaren Ausdruck, daß auf der handlungsentlasteten Ebene des (sprachlichen) Denkens Präoperationalität bis zum ca. 12. Lebensjahr andauert. Jedenfalls läßt sich festhalten, daß die Operationen zunächst auf die Manipulation konkreter Objekte beschränkt bleiben.

104. Petter, G. 1976:324 ff; Piaget 1980 a:103 ff; ders. 1977:280 ff. 44 Jedes Stadium baut auf den Errungenschaften seines Vorgängers auf und bereitet das nächste vor. Die Repräsentationen entwickeln sich aus den sensomotorischen Koordinationen, die konkreten Operationen bilden sich aus repräsentierten Wahrnehmungen und die formale Logik bezieht sich auf und strukturiert die operativen Handlungen. Jedes Stadium beherrscht also alles das, was das vorhergehende auch konnte, und ist entwickelter, systematischer und integrierter.

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