Download Birds. Brain and Behavior by Irving J. Goodman and Martin W. Schein (Eds.) PDF

By Irving J. Goodman and Martin W. Schein (Eds.)

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Cth Cent casai Fig. 4. Transverse section through the lumbosacral enlargement of the pigeon spinal cord. , dorsal horn; Lat. , lateral column of motoneurons; Paragris. cells, paragriseal neurons; Rhomb, sinus, rhomboid sinus. ] B. PERIPHERAL AND SEGMENTAL INNERVATION 1. Peripheral Innervation As in all vertebrates, birds possess numerous free nerve endings which ramify into various types of terminals. The skin and feathers are richly endowed with sensory endings, and, while still moot, it has been claimed that mammalian-like Merkel discs, Krause end bulbs and Meissner corpuscles are present, in addition to the various classes of free nerve endings.

Although there is no direct projection of the papilla basilaris upon the nucleus laminaris, this nucleus does receive inputs from the nuclei magnocellularis of each side, the ipsilateral and contralateral afferent projections terminating on opposing polarized dendrites of laminaris neurons. This agrees with Cajal's (1952) early suggestion that the nucleus laminaris is most directly comparable to the medial accessory superior olivary nucleus of mammals both in patterns of dendritic orientation and preferential afferentation.

Ghiselin, M. T. An application of the theory of definitions to systematic principles. Systematic Zoology, 1966, 15, 127-130. Ghiselin, M. T. The distribution between similarity and homology. Systematic Zoology, 1969, 18, 148-149. Haas, O. & Simpson, G. G. Analysis of phylogenetic terms with attempts at redefinition. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1946, 90, 319-245. THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BRAIN-BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIPS 25 Hecht, M. K. The living lower tetrapods: their interrelationships and phylogenetic position.

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