By Alison Adam
Artificial Knowing demanding situations the masculine slant within the man made Intelligence (AI) view of the realm. Alison Adam admirably fills the big hole in technology and expertise reviews through displaying us that gender bias is inscribed in AI-based computers. Her therapy of feminist epistemology, concentrating on the information of the figuring out topic, the character of data, rationality and language, are guaranteed to make an important and robust contribution to AI studies.
Drawing from theories via Donna Haraway and Sherry Turkle, and utilizing instruments of feminist epistemology, Adam offers a sustained critique of AI which apparently re-enforces the various conventional criticisms of the AI undertaking. Artificial Knowing is an esential learn for these attracted to gender stories, technological know-how and know-how stories, and philosophical debates in AI.
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Extra resources for Artificial Knowing: Gender and the Thinking Machine
Shaw and Herbert Simon’s (1963) Logic Theorist. Simon initially considered three tasks for the program: chess, geometry and logic theorem proving - the latter for no deeper reason, apparently, than he happened to have the two volumes of Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead’s Principia, the ‘bible’ of predicate logic, at home. In the history of AI, Logic Theorist is highly significant as it mapped out the field for AI search strategies and the use of heuristics which were developed from Simon’s own work on decision theory.
I have found resonances with my own work here, particularly where I challenge reasoning styles which are assumed universal in AI. This is a particular feature of the Soar system which, as I describe in chapter three, encapsulates reasoning styles based on empirical data obtained almost entirely from male college students. e. with assuming that the female traits they found are essential characteristics, and with the tendency to assume that all women’s experiences are broadly similar (Goldberger 1996a: 7-8).
In such a case it would be easy to fix on the idea that the aim of AI is primarily to create an artificial mind, and that the success or failure of the whole AI project should be judged against this one goal. GENERAL PROBLEM-SOLVING - THE EARLY DAYS OF AI A researcher entering the field of AI at the end of the twentieth century enters a mature discipline with clear boundaries and a set of problems which are deemed to be appropriate for the subject, what Thomas Kuhn (1970) would have termed a ‘paradigm’, or Imre Lakatos (1970), a ‘research programme’.