By Chol-hwan Kang, Pierre Rigoulot
North Korea is this day one of many final bastions of hard-line Communism. Its leaders have saved a good snatch on their one-party regime, quashing any nascent competition pursuits and sending all suspected dissidents to its brutal focus camps for "re-education." Kang Chol-hwan is the 1st survivor of 1 of those camps to flee and inform his tale to the area, documenting the extraordinary stipulations in those gulags and offering a private perception into existence in North Korea. half horror tale, half historic record, half memoir, half political tract, this list of 1 man's pain offers eyewitness evidence to an ongoing sorrowful bankruptcy of contemporary history.</Div>
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Extra info for Aquariums of Pyongyang: Ten Years in the North Korean Gulag
1380--1250), and the newly developed state of U rartu (c. 830--730). 38 Beneath this interplay of what one might term the official nations, with their diplomatic games, dynastic marriages, intrigues and wars, yet another process of ethnic transformation was taking place. From about the eleventh century a mighty new wave of Semitic immigrants - Aramaeans and Chaldaeans - began to settle: the former in Assyria, the latter in what had previously been Sumer and Akkad, but had been known from the time of the Amorites as Babylonia.
He chose one god - the sun - but not in the traditional form of Re, but in the new form of a sun-disc, Aten. Amenhotep (meaning 'Amon is satisfied') appropriately changed his own name into Akhenaten ('the spirit of Aten'). Aten was deemed to be an exclusive and universal god, who after several years of competitive coexistence became a jealous god, so 28 The Civilizations of Asia and the Middle East that all other cults had to be abandoned. As a corollary to the universalistic message peace had to prevail; consequently the imperial interests abroad, especially in Syria, were not adequately protected.
Although there is some evidence that the Hyksos were quite keen to assimilate the Egyptian culture, they were not readily accepted by the Egyptians. Whether they were too tainted by the vestiges of the Cuneiscript civilization acquired during their sojourn in Syria, as Arnold Toynbee suggests, 26 or whether it was simply because they were not prepared to accept a second-class position within Egyptian society, as for instance the less culturally committed Libyans and Nubians did, the Hyksos after some one hundred years of domination in Egypt were expelled by their vassal king of Upper Egypt.