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By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)

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Association formation n o w depends not just on the levels of concurrent activation in the C S and U S nodes but also on the effects of a modulatory process, deter­ mined by the past history of the C S as a predictor of USs o f t h a t type, that acts on the link between them. 2. T h e question raised there was w h y it should be that flavor aversions can be acquired with ease, even w h e n C S and U S are widely separated in time. T h e issue essentially concerns selectivity in association formation— w h y should it be that the US-induced illness becomes associated with a flavor consumed hours earlier rather than with the other events (such as those involved in administering the US) that occur much closer in time to the US?

Biological factors in learning (pp. 3 2 5 - 3 5 0 ) . Chichester: Wiley. L u b o w , R. E. (1973). Latent inhibition. Psychological Bulletin, 79, 3 9 8 - 4 0 7 . M a c k i n t o s h , N . J. (1975). A theory o f attention: Variation in the associability of stimuli w i t h reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 2 7 6 - 2 9 8 . M a c k i n t o s h , N . J. (1983). Conditioning and associative learning. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n Press. M a h o n e y , W. , & Ayres, J. J. B. (1976). One-trial simultaneous and b a c k w a r d fear c o n d i t i o n ­ ing as reflected in conditioned suppression of licking in rats.

B r a n d o n , S. E. (1989). Evolution of a structured connectionist model of Pavlovian conditioning ( A E S O P ) . In S. B. Klein & R. R. ), Contemporary learning theories: Pavlovian conditioning and the status of traditional learning theory (pp. 1 4 9 189). Hillsdale, NJ: E r l b a u m . Wagner, A. , & Larew, M . B. (1985). O p p o n e n t processes and Pavlovian inhibition. In R. R. Miller & N . E. ), Information processing in animals: Conditioned inhibition (pp. 2 3 3 - 2 6 5 ) . Hillsdale, NJ: E r l b a u m .

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