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By Darrol Stinton

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The singularity method (panels) in (c) is used to determine subsonic and supersonic linear flow conditions. The Euler method in (d) is to reproduce non-linear flow conditions in the transonic regime. 2 Subsonic flight In subsonic flight the aeroplane can be considered to be made up of discrete parts each with its own independent function. Aerodynamic design seeks to achieve the maximum efficiency of each part as a separate entity, while minimizing the interference between them. Lifting surfaces, generically called aerofoils, include all wing and stabilizer surfaces.

Additionally, accelerated flight results from horizontal and vertical gusts which, in being associated with atmospheric turbulence, are of critical importance at high speed. It may be shown that the resulting normal acceleration varies with TAS and inversely with wing loading (the weight of aircraft carried per unit wing area). 2 in Fig. E-4) have small, short wings. 3 Flight loads During flight an aeroplane is subjected to a wide range of combinations of normal accelerations, speeds and altitudes.

5. Fig. 6 Comparison of typical performance characteristics of several different powerplants. The net horsepower of the engine is proportional to the net thrust multiplied by the velocity of flight; it is useful in that when compared with the drag horsepower one obtains a measure of the residual power left over for doing work, either by changing altitude or increasing speed. 6(b) shows typical values of net horsepower/lb dry weight. The overall efficiency of a propulsion system is indicated by the specific fuel consumption, defined as the number of pounds of fuel used to produce one horsepower for one hour.

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