By N B Davies; J R Krebs; Stuart A West
Ordinary choice, ecology and behavior -- checking out hypotheses in behavioural ecology -- financial judgements and the person -- Predators as opposed to prey: evolutionary fingers races -- Competing for assets -- dwelling in teams -- Sexual choice, sperm festival and sexual clash -- Parental care and relations conflicts -- Mating structures -- intercourse allocation -- Social behaviours: altruism to spite -- Cooperation -- Altruism and clash within the social bugs -- verbal exchange and indications -- end
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Extra resources for An introduction to behavioural ecology
3 Differences in social organization of African ungulates. (a) Kirk’s dik-dik Madoqua kirki live in pairs in woodland. Photo © Oliver Krüger. (b) Impala live in small groups in open woodland and grassland. Photo © Bruce Lyon. (c) Wildebeest graze in huge herds out on the open plains. com/William Davies. Limitations of early comparative studies These early studies revealed the promise of the comparative approach in behavioural ecology. However, there were limitations in the methodology. Many of these are not unique to comparative studies and it is worth bearing them in mind throughout the book.
Most of all, we hope to show how ideas from behavioural ecology can help us to understand and appreciate the marvels of the natural world. Summary Behavioural ecology aims to understand how behaviour evolves in relation to ecological conditions, including both the physical environment and the social environment (competitors, predators and parasites). It is important to distinguish proximate factors, which explain how individuals come to behave in a particular way during their lifetime, from ultimate factors, which concern adaptive advantage in evolution.
David Lack (1968) extended the argument to include all bird species and Peter Jarman (1974) used the same approach for the African ungulates. indd 30 Jarman (1974) considered 74 species of African ungulates; all eat plant material but differences in the precise type of food eaten are correlated with differences in movements, mating systems and anti-predator behaviour (Fig. 3). 3). Just as in the weaver birds, several adaptations seem to go together. The major correlate of diet and social organization is body size.