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By G Antoniou; Frank Van Harmelen

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Fischetti. Weaving the Web. San Francisco: Harper, 1999. Many introductory articles on the Semantic Web are available online. Here we list a few: • T. Berners-Lee. Semantic Web Road Map. September 1998. html>. • T. Berners-Lee. Evolvability. March 1998. html>. • T. Berners-Lee. What the Semantic Web Can Represent. September 1998. html>. • E. Dumbill. The Semantic Web: A Primer. November 1, 2000. com/pub/a/2000/11/01/semanticweb/>. • F. van Harmelen and D. Fensel. Practical Knowledge Representation for the Web.

However, in more recent years, ontology has become one of the many words hijacked by computer science and given a specific technical meaning that is rather different from the original one. Instead of “ontology” we now speak of “an ontology”. R. Gruber’s definition, later refined by R. Studer: An ontology is an explicit and formal specification of a conceptualization. In general, an ontology describes formally a domain of discourse. Typically, an ontology consists of a finite list of terms and the relationships between these terms.

For logic to be useful on the Web it must be usable in conjunction with other data, and it must be machine-processable as well. Therefore, there is ongoing work on representing logical knowledge and proofs in Web languages. Initial approaches work at the level of XML, but in the future rules and proofs will need to be represented at the level of RDF and ontology languages, such as DAML+OIL and OWL. 4 Agents Agents are pieces of software that work autonomously and proactively. Conceptually they evolved out of the concepts of object-oriented programming and component-based software development.

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