By Florian Cajori
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Extra info for A History of Mathematical Notations Volume II, Notations Mainly in Higher Mathematics
Indb 22 For the employee of the World Bank, rules of the market and not government intervention or social or environmental concerns should determine economic survival. Those who survive the market demonstrate a sustainability that ultimately fights poverty more effectively than the subsidized, interventionist policies favored by critics of the World Bank. Ideological differences concern political as well as economic transformation. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID), following the logic that democratization is good for national interests, promotes specific programs relating to democracy as part of its mission.
56 Such political support for improvement in social conditions and liberalization are in turn altering the landscape of political mobilization and conflict. As we discuss in Chapter 3, both actions on the part of the state have allowed for the emergence of popular mobilization and have made constraints on political freedom a topic of public debate. Political Liberalization In the early 1990s, faced with budgetary constraints, weak economic growth, and growing social unrest, King Hassan II undertook limited measures of political liberalization.
Consulting firms and international NGOs partner or fund in Morocco with some of the tens of thousands of associations that have appeared since the liberalization of laws in the early 1990s. indb 25 25 Debating and Implementing “Development” in Morocco Association Marocaine des Droits Humains. The Japanese and French governments work with the government on large-scale projects—in Japan’s case, water supply in rural areas—and provide small grants to local associations for specific programs. As we discuss in Chapter 2, some of the more elite or urban associations do work with more political organizations based in Europe and the United States.