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By F. Thompson

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O'Brien is obviously an Irish name. The man is a member of the Inner Party, and he bears some physical resemblance to Big Brother himself. In a society like that of England, the Irish hold a unique place. They are, to a certain extent, a classless people in a society which is traditionally stratified. It is possible that O'Brien represents the ideal of the kind of totalitarian state imagined by Orwell a truly classless individual who has achieved membership in the Inner Party by the very reason of his exclusion from the caste system of the old order.

The erring citizenWinstonmust be reborn, only to be destroyed; Orwell constructs here a cruel parody of Christian resurrection. Chapters 3-5 What Winston was unable to discover in The Book is now revealed by O'Brien: the Party seeks and holds power for its own sake, not for the way it can be used. And power means the power to make men suffer. This idea of power is an extension of prevalent notions in contemporary societies. We think of power as acquired usually for some end other than itself. The Party, as expressed in O'Brien's comments to Winston, also believes in a simplified idealism.

The print of St. Clement's and the jingle about London churches remind him of the past, which is important both to him and to the Party. Winston's fear of rats, dropped in here so unobtrusively, seems unimportant at the moment. In fact, the meaning of all these symbols will change greatly in later incidents. Chapters 5-8 Julia's understanding of the ways in which Party ideas work is much keener than Winston's, although she accepts unthinkingly much of its mythology. She believes that the Party invented airplanes and that Oceania has always been at war with Eurasia.

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